Getting Started With HTML And CSS

By Atul Chavan - 10:46 AM

What is HTML?
HTML is a language for describing web pages.
  • HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language
  • HTML is a markup language
  • A markup language is a set of markup tags
  • The tags describe document content
  • HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text
  • HTML documents are also called web pages

HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags.
  • HTML tags are keywords (tag names) surrounded by angle brackets like <html>
  • HTML tags normally come in pairs like <p> and </p>
  • The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag
  • The end tag is written like the start tag, with a slash before the tag name
  • Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags
<!DOCTYPE html>
<h1> Atul Chavan</h1>
<p> Jade Global</p>
Example Explained
  • The DOCTYPE declaration defines the document type


 <!DOCTYPE html>

HTML 4.01

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
  • The text between <html> and </html> describes the web page
  • The text between <body> and </body> is the visible page content
  • The text between <h1> and </h1> is displayed as a heading
  • The text between <p> and </p> is displayed as a paragraph

HTML Headings

HTML headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags.


<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<h2>This is a heading</h2>
<h3>This is a heading</h3>
<a href="">This is a link</a>

HTML Tag Reference

You will learn more about HTML tags and attributes in the next chapters of this tutorial.
Defines an HTML document
Defines the document's body
Defines HTML headings
Defines a horizontal line
Defines a comment

HTML Text Formatting Tags

Defines bold text
Defines emphasized text 
Defines a part of text in an alternate voice or mood
Defines smaller text
Defines important text
Defines subscripted text
Defines superscripted text
Defines inserted text
Defines deleted text
Defines marked/highlighted text
CSS Example
<!DOCTYPE html>
<div style="opacity:0.5;position:absolute;left:50px;width:300px;height:150px;background-color:#40B3DF;"></div>
<div style="font-family:verdana;padding:20px;border-radius:10px;border:10px solid #EE872A;">
<div style="opacity:0.3;position:absolute;left:120px;width:100px;height:200px;background-color:#8AC007;"></div>
<h3>Look! Styles and colors</h3>
<div style="letter-spacing:12px;">Manipulate Text</div>
<div style="color:#40B3DF;">Colors <span style="background-color:#B4009E;color:#ffffff;">Boxes</span></div>
<div style="color:#000000;">and more...</div>

Image Example
<!DOCTYPE html>
<h2>Norwegian Mountain Trip</h2>
<img border="0" src="/images/pulpit.jpg" alt="Pulpit rock" width="304" height="228">
Table Example
<table style="width:300px">

HTML Unordered Lists

An unordered list starts with the <ul> tag. Each list item starts with the <li> tag.
The list items are marked with bullets (typically small black circles).

HTML Ordered Lists

An ordered list starts with the <ol> tag. Each list item starts with the <li> tag.
The list items are marked with numbers.

HTML Description Lists

A description list is a list of terms/names, with a description of each term/name.
The <dl> tag defines a description list.
The <dl> tag is used in conjunction with <dt> (defines terms/names) and <dd> (describes each term/name):
<dd>- black hot drink</dd>
<dd>- white cold drink</dd>

HTML Layouts - Using <div> Elements

The div element is a block level element used for grouping HTML elements.
The following example uses five div elements to create a multiple column layout, creating the same result as in the previous example:


<!DOCTYPE html>
<div id="container" style="width:500px">
<div id="header" style="background-color:#FFA500;">
<h1 style="margin-bottom:0;">Main Title of Web Page</h1></div>
<div id="menu" style="background-color:#FFD700;height:200px;width:100px;float:left;">
<div id="content" style="background-color:#EEEEEE;height:200px;width:400px;float:left;">
Content goes here</div>

<div id="footer" style="background-color:#FFA500;clear:both;text-align:center;">
Copyright ©</div>

HTML Forms - The Input Element

The most important form element is the <input> element.
The <input> element is used to select user information.
An <input> element can vary in many ways, depending on the type attribute. An <input> element can be of type text field, checkbox, password, radio button, submit button, and more.
The most common input types are described below.

Text Fields

<input type="text"> defines a one-line input field that a user can enter text into:
First name: <input type="text" name="firstname"><br>
Last name: <input type="text" name="lastname">
Note: The form itself is not visible. Also note that the default width of a text field is 20 characters. 

Radio Buttons

<input type="radio"> defines a radio button. Radio buttons let a user select ONLY ONE of a limited number of choices:
<input type="radio" name="sex" value="male">Male<br>
<input type="radio" name="sex" value="female">Female


<input type="checkbox"> defines a checkbox. Checkboxes let a user select ZERO or MORE options of a limited number of choices.
<input type="checkbox" name="vehicle" value="Bike">I have a bike<br>
<input type="checkbox" name="vehicle" value="Car">I have a car

Submit Button

<input type="submit"> defines a submit button.
A submit button is used to send form data to a server. The data is sent to the page specified in the form's action attribute. The file defined in the action attribute usually does something with the received input:
<form name="input" action="demo_form_action.asp" method="get">
Username: <input type="text" name="user">
<input type="submit" value="Submit">

Iframe - Set Height and Width

The height and width attributes are used to specify the height and width of the iframe.
The attribute values are specified in pixels by default, but they can also be in percent (like "80%").


<iframe src="demo_iframe.htm" width="200" height="200"></iframe>

HTML Links - The id Attribute

The id attribute can be used to create a bookmark inside an HTML document.
Tip: Bookmarks are not displayed in any special way. They are invisible to the reader.


An anchor with an id inside an HTML document:
<a id="tips">Useful Tips Section</a>
Create a link to the "Useful Tips Section" inside the same document:
<a href="#tips">Visit the Useful Tips Section</a>
Or, create a link to the "Useful Tips Section" from another page:
<a href="">
Visit the Useful Tips Section</a>

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